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Kingdom Plantae

  Division Angiosperms: The Flowering Plants

    Class Liliopsida: Monocotyledons

      Subclass Arecidae: The Arecidae, the smallest and least homogeneous subclass in the angiosperms, includes four orders, of which three have only a single family and the fourth has three families. Together the six families encompass about 4,800 species. Arranged from largest to smallest, the orders are Arecales, including the Arecaceae, or Palmae, with 202 genera and about 2,800 species; the Arales, including three families, the Araceae with 110 genera and 1,100 species, the Lemnaceae with 6 genera and 29 species, and the Acoraceae with 1 genus and 2 species; the Pandanales, including one family, the Pandanaceae with 3 genera and about 700 species; and the Cyclanthales, including the family Cyclanthaceae with 11 genera and about 200 species.

The families were originally placed together on the basis of a woody habit with leaves in terminal clusters and presumably similar inflorescence structure. Subsequent study, however, has revealed that the architecture, leaf, inflorescence, flowers, and seeds are structurally different in these families. The classification into separate orders reflects their distinctiveness.

        Superorder Areciforae

          Order Arecales: order of flowering plants that contains only one family, the palms (Palmae). About 2,800 species are known.

            Family Palmae

Classification of the Family Palmae*

Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genus
Coryphoideae Corypheae Thrinacinae Thrinax, Chelyocarpus, Crysophila, Itaya, Schippia, Thrinax, Coccothrinax, Zombia, Trachycarpus, Guihaia, Rhapis, Rhapidophyllum, Chamaerops, Maxburrietia
    Livistoninae Livistona, Pholidocarpus, Brahea, Johannesteijsmannia, Licuala, Pritchardia, Pritchardiopsis, Serenoa, Copernicia, Colpothrinax, Acoelorraphe, Washingtonia
    Coryphinae Corypha, Nannorrhops, Chuniophoenix, Kerriodoxa
    Sabalinae Sabal
  Phoeniceae   Phoenix
  Borasseae Lataniinae Borassodendron, Latania, Borassus, Lodoicea
    Hyphaeninae Hyphaene, Medemia, Bismarckia
Calamoideae Calameae Ancistrophyllinae Laccosperma, Eremospatha
    Eugeissoninae Eugeissona
    Metroxylinae Metroxylon, Korthalsia
    Calaminae Eleiodoxa, Salacca, Daemonorops, Calamus, Calospatha, Pogonotium, Ceratolobus, Retispatha
    Plectocomiinae Myrialepsis, Plectocomiopsis, Plectocomia
    Pigafettinae Pigafetta
    Raphiinae Raphia
    Oncocalaminae Oncocalamus
  Lepidocaryeae   Mauritia, Mauritiella, Lepidocarym
Nyphoideae     Nypa
Ceroxyloideae Cyclospaeae   Pseudophoenix
  Ceroxyleae   Ceroxylon, Oraniopsis, Juania, Louvelia, Ravenea
  Hyophorbeae   Gaussia, Hyophorbe, Synecanthus, Chamaedorea, Wendlandiella
Arecoideae Caryoteae   Arenga, Caryota, Wallichia
  Iriarteae Iriarteinae Dictyocaryum, Iriartella, Iriartea, Socratea
  Podococceae   Podococcus
  Areceae Oraniinae Halmoorea, Orania
    Manicariinae Manicaria
    Leopoldiniinae Leopoldinia
    Malortieinae Reinhardtia
    Dypsidinae Vonitra, [Chrysalidocarpus: now Dypsis], Neophloga, [Neodypsis: now Dypsis], Phloga, Dypsis
    Euterpeinae Euterpe, Prestoea, Neonicholsonia, Oecocarpus, Jessenia, Hyospathe
    Roystoneinae Roystonea
    Archontophoenicinae Archontophoenix, Chambeyronia, Hedyscepe, Rhopalostylis, Kentiopsis, Mackeea, Actinokentia
    Cyrtostachydinae Cyrtostachys
    Linospadicinae Calyptrocalyx, Linospadix, Howea, Laccospadix
    Ptychospermatinae Drymophloeus, Carpentaria, Veitchia, Normanbya, Wodyetia, Ptychosperma, Ptychococcus, Brassiophoenix, Balaka
    Areninae Loxococcus, Gronophyllum, Areca, Siphokentia, Hydriastele, Gulubia, Nenga, Pinanga
    Iguanurinae Neovetchia, Pelagodoxa, Iguanura, Brongniartikentia, Lepidorrhachis, Heterospathe, Sommieria, Bentinckia, Clinosperma, Cyphokentia, Moratia, Clinostigma, Alsmithia, Satakentia, Rhopaloblaste, Dictyosperma, Actniorhytis, Lavoixia, Alloschmidia, Cyphophoenix, Campecarpus, Basselinia, Cyphosperma, Veillonia, Burretiokentia, Physokentia, Goniocladus
    Oncospermatinae Deckenia, Acanthophoenix, Rocheria, Oncosperma, Tectiphiala, Verscheffeltia,Phoenicophorium, Nephrosperma
    Sclerospermatinae Sclerosperma, Marojejya
      Genera of the tribe Areceae, but of uncertain affinity: Masoala, Carpoxylon
  Cocoeae Beccariophoenicinae Beccariophoenix
    Butiinae Butia, Jubaea, Jubaeopsis, Cocos, Syagrus, Lytocaryum, Parajubaea, Allagoptera, Polyandrococos
    Attaleinae Attalea [Scheelea, Orbignya, Maximiliana: these three genera are now included in Attalea]
    Elaeidinae Barcella, Elaeis
    Bactridinae Acrocomia, Gastrococos, Aiphanes, Bactris, Desmoncus, Astrocaryum
  Geonomeae   Pholidostachys, Welfia, Calyptronoma, Calyptrogyne, Asterogyne, Geonoma
Phytelephantoideae     Palandra, Phytelephas, Ammandra

Note: This classification introduced the new genera, Aphandra, Voaniola, and Lemurophoenix, and removed the following genera: Bismarckia to be included in Medemia; Louvelia to be included in Ravenea; Halmoorea to be included in Orania; Vonitra, Chrysalidocarpus, Neodypsis, and Phloga to be included in Dypsis; Prestoea to be included in Euterpe; Jessenia to be included in Oenocarpus; Scheelea, Orbignya, and Maximiliana to be included in Attalea; Marojejya to be included in Massoala; Palandra to be included in Phytelephas; Carpoxylon to be included in Iguanurinae.

References:

Stewart, L. 1994. A Guide to the Palms & Cycads of the World. Angus & Robertson, Sydney, Australia.

Uhl, NW & J Dransfield. 1987. Genera Palamarum: A Classification of Palms Based on the Work of Harold E. Moore, Jr. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Click on the titles above (underlined references only) to purchase the books from Amazon.com.

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